We also work in the field of law, in particular of those laws that are considered computable
laws by public administracions, which are the laws that will be created with the aim
to be technical specifications for designing software and automatizations of processes
We offer a combination of mathematically designed laws with corresponding software which is formally verified. We provide computer-checked proofs that:
- Mathematically speaking, the software is a formal and exact implementation with zero errors of the technical specifications provided in the law.
- The law is logically consistent, unambiguous, and algorithmic. All these properties are mathematically proven.
- The law is within computably feasible limits.
- The physics parameters verifiably match up to the physical reality.
- Formal specifications used to prove that the software meets exactly the laws or technical specifications.
In this way governments can have complete control and peace of mind that both the law and the
enforcement software are irrefutable, which in turn improves the quality of
law enforcement and reduces enforcement implementation time and effort.
Our goal includes that the Public Certification of a Specification and its Software, in the sense that, in principle, everyone can (be trained to) understand what is verified and why. This accessibility feature is crucial to guarantee the quality of democracy.
Every computable law and technical specification affecting civil rights should go through the process of public certication, for a more just society.
Some examples of computables laws developed as software and currently in force, used by enforcement agencies, which cannot be publicly certified, meaning that the software developers are the real lawmakers and enforcement agents, according to their own criteria
EURegulation (EC) 561/2006
Article 7 of Regulation (EC) 561/2006
After a driving period of four and a half hours a driver shall take an uninterrupted break of not less than 45 minutes, unless he takes a rest period. This break may be replaced by a break of at least 15 minutes followed by a break of at least 30 minutes each distributed over the period in such a way as to comply with the provisions of the first paragraph.
Article 6-1 of Regulation (EC) 561/2006
Article 6 1. The daily driving time shall not exceed nine hours. However, the daily driving time may be extended to at most 10 hours not more than twice during the week.
Article 4 and 8 of Regulation (EC) 561/2006
Article 4 (g) ‘daily rest period’ means the daily period during which a driver may freely dispose of his time and covers a ‘regular daily rest period’ and a ‘reduced daily rest period’: – ‘regular daily rest period’ means any period of rest of at least 11 hours. Alternatively, this regular daily rest period may be taken in two periods, the first of which must be an uninterrupted period of at least 3 hours and the second an uninterrupted period of at least nine hours, – ‘reduced daily rest period’ means any period of rest of at least nine hours but less than 11 hours; (q) ‘driving period’ means the accumulated driving time from when a driver commences driving following a rest period or a break until he takes a rest period or a break. The driving period may be continuous or broken. (o) ‘multi-manning’ means the situation where, during each period of driving between any two consecutive daily rest periods, or between a daily rest period and a weekly rest period, there are at least two drivers in the vehicle to do the driving. For the first hour of multi-manning the presence of another driver or drivers is optional but for the remainder of the period it is compulsory; (...)
1. A driver shall take daily and weekly rest periods. 3
2. Within each period of 24 hours after the end of the previous daily rest period or weekly rest period a driver shall have taken a new daily rest period. If the portion of the daily rest period which falls within that 24 hour period is at least nine hours but less than 11 hours, then the daily rest period in question shall be regarded as a reduced daily rest period.
3. A daily rest period may be extended to make a regular weekly rest period or a reduced weekly rest period.
4. A driver may have at most three reduced daily rest periods between any two weekly rest periods.
5. By way of derogation from paragraph 2, within 30 hours of the end of a daily or weekly rest period, a driver engaged in multi-manning must have taken a new daily rest period of at least nine hours.
USAElectronic Code of Federal Regulations
PART 395—HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS
Eight consecutive days means the period of 8 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
Seven consecutive days means the period of 7 consecutive days beginning on any day at the time designated by the motor carrier for a 24-hour period.
§395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.
(b) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, regardless of the number of motor carriers using the driver's services, for any period after—
(1) Having been on duty 60 hours in any period of 7 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier does not operate commercial motor vehicles every day of the week; or
(2) Having been on duty 70 hours in any period of 8 consecutive days if the employing motor carrier operates commercial motor vehicles every day of the week.
(c)(1) Any period of 7 consecutive days may end with the beginning of an off-duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours.
(2) Any period of 8 consecutive days may end with the beginning of an off-duty period of 34 or more consecutive hours.
§395.1 Scope of rules in this part.
(ii) Sleeper berth. A driver may accumulate the equivalent of at least 10 consecutive hours off-duty by taking not more than two periods of either sleeper berth time or a combination of off-duty time and sleeper berth time if:
(A) Neither rest period is shorter than 2 consecutive hours;
(B) One rest period is at least 7 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth;
(C) The total of the two periods is at least 10 hours; and
(D) Driving time in the period immediately before and after each rest period, when added together:
(1) Does not exceed 11 hours under §395.3(a)(3); and
(2) Does not violate the 14-hour duty-period limit under §395.3(a)(2).
Commercial Vehicle Drivers Hours of service regulationsSOR (Statutory Orders and Regulations)/2005-313 MOTOR VEHICLE TRANSPORT ACT
Deferral of Daily Off-duty Time
16 Despite sections 12 and 14, a driver who is not splitting off-duty time in accordance with section 18 or 19 may defer a maximum of 2 hours of the daily off-duty time to the following day if
(a) the off-duty time deferred is not part of the mandatory 8 consecutive hours of off-duty time;
(b) the total off-duty time taken in the 2 days is at least 20 hours;
(c) the off-duty time deferred is added to the 8 consecutive hours of off-duty time taken in the second day;
(d) the total driving time in the 2 days does not exceed 26 hours; and
(e) there is a declaration in the “Remarks” section of the daily log that states that the driver is deferring off-duty time under this section and that clearly indicates whether the driver is driving under day one or day two of that time.
Spliting Of Daily Off-duty Time - Single Driver
18 (1) A driver who is driving a commercial vehicle fitted with a sleeper berth may meet the mandatory off-duty time and daily off-duty time requirements of sections 13 and 14 by accumulating off-duty time in no more than 2 periods if
(a) neither period of off-duty time is shorter than 2 hours;
(b) the total of the 2 periods of off-duty time is at least 10 hours;
(c) the off-duty time is spent resting in the sleeper berth;
(c.1) the sleeper berth meets the requirements of Schedule 1;
(d) the total of the driving time in the periods immediately before and after each of the periods of off-duty time does not exceed 13 hours;
(e) the elapsed time in the periods immediately before and after each of the periods of off- duty time does not include any driving time after the 16th hour after the driver comes on-duty;
(f) none of the daily off-duty time is deferred to the next day; and
(g) the total of the on-duty time in the periods immediately before and after each of the periods of off-duty time referred to in paragraph (b) does not include any driving time after the 14th hour.
(2) The 16th hour is calculated by
(a) excluding any period spent in the sleeper berth that is 2 hours or more in duration and that, when added to a subsequent period in the sleeper berth, totals at least 10 hours; and
(i) all on-duty time,
(ii) all off-duty time not spent in the sleeper berth,
(iii) all periods of less than 2 hours spent in the sleeper berth, and (iv) any other period spent in the sleeper berth that does not qualify as counting towards meeting the requirements of this section.
Spliting Of Daily Off-duty Time - Single Driver
19 (1) A team of drivers driving a commercial vehicle fitted with a sleeper berth may meet the mandatory off-duty time and daily off-duty time requirements of sections 13 and 14 by accumulating off-duty time in no more than 2 periods if
24 A motor carrier shall require that a driver follows and the driver shall follow either cycle 1 or cycle 2.
Cycles Reset - Off-duty Time
28 (1) A driver may end the current cycle and begin a new cycle if the driver first takes the following off-duty time:
Cycles Switching - Off-duty Time
29 (1) No motor carrier shall request, require or allow a driver to switch and no driver shall switch from one cycle to the other without first taking the following off-duty time before beginning to drive again: